Interview with Chairman of Vision & Global Trends International Institute for Global Analyses Tiberio Graziani (Italy)
What is the connection between the growing social tension in the Italian society and the foreign policy which was pursued by the Cabinet of Mario Draghi? What lies behind the consistently anti-Russian position which the former prime minister chose to pursue?
The social tension that pervades Italy, mainly of an economic but also political nature, has remote causes. Let’s start with the latter.
In summary, we can say that the Italian political crisis starts from the collapse of the so-called First Republic (1946-1994) and is affected by the geopolitical earthquake originating from the Berlin Wall Fall, the subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union and the advent of the USA as a hyperpower global. Italy, from 1994 to today, has struggled to equip itself with a new ruling class suited to the challenges of the new geopolitical reality; above all, it has encountered difficulties in redefining its national identity and how to value – within the framework of specific national interests – its power factors in the light of the new international horizon. As regards its international positioning, the logic of “Western” interest prevailed among almost all Italian politicians rather than the attempt to increase one’s degrees of freedom of action in the new global arena. Furthermore, with reference to domestic issues, the governments of the Second Republic have failed to implement an industrial, economic and fiscal policy in harmony with the needs and expectations of the population and the economic-productive fabric of the country. This weakness has allowed – within the framework of the restructuring of the world economy underlying the process of so-called globalization – its uncritical adaptation to liberal policies (on the other hand conditioned, on the international level, by “external constraints”, that is, by Atlanticism and ‘European Union) by clumsily proceeding with the liberalization of the internal market, the sale of strategic assets for the country, the encouragement of delocalization policies, the deconstruction of the national pension system and also of the health system one. With this liberal democratic turn, Italy, or rather, the various governments that have followed one another over the past 28 years have broken the “solidarity” tradition that characterized the politics of the First Republic. The internal political debate has progressively focused on short-term issues, however obscured by the growing protagonism of some leaders who – by interpreting politics (i.e. the management of the res publica) in personalistic terms – have polarized the attention of citizens on the clash between them rather than their seemingly conflicting political views.